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Antibiotics are necessary for fighting existing infection and preventing infection in certain people. As with all medications, antibiotics carry some inherent risk. These risks include side effects such as Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and with repeated misuse, antibacterial resistance may develop.

The OASIS Collaborative is a system redesign initiative to improve antibiotic prescribing in skilled nursing facilities. OASIS is an acronym for the full title of the project: "Optimizing Antibiotic Stewardship In Skilled Nursing Facilities." Collaborative refers to the unique implementation utilized by the initiative that includes coaching of both individual facilities and groups of facilities.

Research has shown that the quality of antibiotic prescribing in nursing homes could be improved.  Appropriateness of prescribing, as defined by both Loeb and McGeer criteria, was met in less than 50% of antibiotic prescriptions. The duration of therapy also exceeded recommendations in “a large number of cases.”

The dangers of antibiotic resistance as a public health concern have gained national attention from organizations such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services, and most recently in an Executive Order from the Office of President Obama.